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Collecting Guide: 11 key things to know about Prints & Multiples

From woodcuts to lithographs, originals vs editions, the importance of different types of paper and more — an expert introduction by Head of Sale Lindsay Griffith

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  • What is a print?

A print is any work of art made in multiple iterations, created through a transfer process. There are many different types of prints, and the process is constantly evolving, but the four best-known techniques are etching, lithography, screenprint and woodcut.

Jim Dine (b.  1935), Five Paintbrushes (Third State), 1973. Etching, on Copperplate Deluxe Paper, 1973, signed and dated in pencil, numbered 1728 (there were also seven artists proofs), published by Petersburg Press, New York, with full margins, in very good condition, framed. Image 20½ x 27¼ in (521 x 692 mm). Sheet 29⅜ x 35⅜ in (746 x 899 mm). Sold for $5,250 on 1 March 2017, at

Jim Dine (b. 1935), Five Paintbrushes (Third State), 1973. Etching, on Copperplate Deluxe Paper, 1973, signed and dated in pencil, numbered 17/28 (there were also seven artist's proofs), published by Petersburg Press, New York, with full margins, in very good condition, framed. Image: 20½ x 27¼ in (521 x 692 mm). Sheet: 29⅜ x 35⅜ in (746 x 899 mm). Sold for $5,250 on 1 March 2017, at Christie’s in New York © Jim Dine / ARS, NY and DACS, London 2017

Etching: Using an etching needle, an artist scratches an image onto a metal plate covered with wax. This plate is then submerged in acid, which eats into the metal exposed by the scratched lines. The longer the plate is left in the acid, the deeper and darker the line will be. The plate is cleaned, inked, and cleaned again, leaving only the incised lines filled with ink. Dampened paper and a protective cloth are placed over the plate, which is squeezed through an etching press — the pressure forcing the paper into the etched lines to pick up the ink. The image is printed in reverse, and an indentation, known as the ‘plate mark’, is left by the plate’s edges.  

Etching has often been used to achieve extremely delicate black and white images, from the Old Master period through to modern times. Rembrandt famously used this technique to achieve atmospheric effects, and Wayne Thiebaud continues the tradition today.

Bruce Nauman (b.  1941), Dead, 1975. Lithograph, on roll Arches paper, signed and dated in pencil, numbered 515 (there were also seven artists proofs), published by Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, with their blindstamps and inkstamp on the reverse, with full margins, pale time staining, otherwise in good condition, framed. Image 16¼ x 43½ in (413 x 1105 mm). Sheet 34 x 49 in (864 x 1245

Bruce Nauman (b. 1941), Dead, 1975. Lithograph, on roll Arches paper, signed and dated in pencil, numbered 5/15 (there were also seven artist's proofs), published by Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, with their blindstamps and inkstamp on the reverse, with full margins, pale time staining, otherwise in good condition, framed. Image: 16¼ x 43½ in (413 x 1105 mm). Sheet: 34 x 49 in (864 x 1245 mm). Sold for $27,500 on 1 March 2017, at Christie’s in New York © Bruce Nauman / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London 2017

Lithography: The artist draws onto stone using a grease-based medium — normally special lithographic crayons, or greasy ink known as tusche. The stone is then treated with a chemical solution that ensures the image will attract printing ink, and that blank areas repel ink and attract water. A solvent ‘fixes’ the image, and the surface is dampened with water. Oil-based ink is then applied to the stone with a roller, adhering only to the image. Finally, the stone is placed on a lithographic press and covered with damp paper and board — a pressure bar ensuring force is evenly applied across the image. The image is printed in reverse, with separate stones used for complex images of multiple colours.

Lithography opened up printmaking to artists otherwise reluctant to learn the technical skills needed to create woodcuts or etchings, since many of the same tools, such as brushes and pencils, can be used. Lithography was first made famous by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec in the 19th century, but has been embraced by many of the major artists of the Post-War period, including Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, David Hockney and Jasper Johns.

Andy Warhol (1928-1987), Marilyn one plate, 1967. Screenprint in colours, on wove paper, signed in pencil on the reverse, stamp-numbered 87250 (there were also 26 artists proofs), published by Factory Additions, New York, the full sheet, creasing in places at the sheet edges (with associated minor ink loss), otherwise in good condition, framed. Sheet 36 x 36 in (914 x 914 mm). Sold for $187,500 on

Andy Warhol (1928-1987), Marilyn: one plate, 1967. Screenprint in colours, on wove paper, signed in pencil on the reverse, stamp-numbered 87/250 (there were also 26 artist's proofs), published by Factory Additions, New York, the full sheet, creasing in places at the sheet edges (with associated minor ink loss), otherwise in good condition, framed. Sheet: 36 x 36 in (914 x 914 mm). Sold for $187,500 on 2 November 2016, at Christie’s in New York © 2017 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York and DACS, London

Screenprint: An image is cut into a sheet of paper or plastic film, creating a stencil. This stencil is then placed in a frame, which has a layer of fine mesh stretched across it, forming a ‘screen’. A sheet of paper is placed below the screen, and ink is pushed through the stencil from above, using a rubber blade or squeegee. Only cut-out portions of the stencil print. In addition to stencils, a photographic image can be reproduced on the screen using light-sensitive gelatins. This was a hugely important innovation for Andy Warhol and other members of the Pop generation, who would appropriate commercial photographs and popular images in tandem with the technique. 

Woodcut: An image is sketched on a block of wood before the surface is carved into with gouging tools. The resulting raised portions of the block are then coated in ink using a roller. A sheet of paper is placed on top and pressure is applied, leaving an impression of the block’s raised areas in reverse. Woodcut is the oldest printmaking process and it continues to be relevant today — artists such as Robert Mangold, Frank Stella and Helen Frankenthaler have all used it.

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  • Is a print more than just a copy of an original?

Although printmaking involves reproducing an image, a print is more than just a copy of an original. Fine art prints are something else entirely, resulting from a close collaboration between the artist and the print studio. Printers — the people who work with the artist to produce an edition — are highly skilled technicians, and are often artists in their own right.

Prints are not made in large production runs intended solely for commercial sale. A limited number (known as an edition) are produced, with prescribed routes for initial sale — either through the artist, a commercial gallery or a publisher. As a result they are true works of art, and as important to the artist as drawings or other works on paper.  

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  • Why do artists make prints?

Artists make prints for a variety of reasons. They might be drawn to the collaborative nature of the print studio, or the potential for innovation the medium offers, or for a print’s potential to document each stage of a creative process. Prints can offer a completely different creative outlet to the artist’s primary working method. 

Lucian Freud would create etchings only in black and white following his days in the painting studio, while Ellsworth Kelly applied the same fastidious understanding of colour and form to his editioned work. Some artists consistently make prints for their entire career — Jasper Johns and Pablo Picasso are famously prolific examples —while others come to printmaking in bursts of activity, such as Barnett Newman. Typically these periods can be aligned to working with a particular print workshop. 

Albrecht Dürer, The Rhinoceros (B. 136; M., Holl. 241; S.M.S. 241), 1515. Woodcut with letterpress text, 1515, watermark Anchor in Circle (M. 171), a very good impression of this rare and important woodcut, first edition (of eight), with the complete letterpress text above, with thread margins or trimmed to the borderline at left and right, trimmed just inside the borderline below and to the

Albrecht Dürer, The Rhinoceros (B. 136; M., Holl. 241; S.M.S. 241), 1515. Woodcut with letterpress text, 1515, watermark Anchor in Circle (M. 171), a very good impression of this rare and important woodcut, first edition (of eight), with the complete letterpress text above, with thread margins or trimmed to the borderline at left and right, trimmed just inside the borderline below and to the text above, a small abrasion in the monogram, otherwise in good condition. Sheet 9¼ x 11¾ in (235 x 298 mm). Sold for $866,500 on 29 January 2013 at Christie’s in New York

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  • Originals vs. editions and multiples — what do I need to know?

An ‘original’ print is technically a unique work given it is generally produced as a limited number of impressions (collectively known as an edition), and each print is given an edition number, typically written as a fraction — for example, 24/50. The number to the right of the slash indicates the edition size (in this case, 50), while the figure to the left is the individual print’s number.

A proof number
A proof number

An artist may also produce a limited number of artist’s proofs, often marked A/P, that are identical in nature to the standard edition. Here again, fractions may be used to indicate the total number of proofs, and the print number (e.g. A/P 1/4). Other proofs may be made at an earlier stage, as the artist and printer develop an image or test different compositions. These are known as state proofs, trial proofs or colour proofs. These can be unique, with differences in colour combinations, paper types or size. Andy Warhol started to sell his trial proofs as unique colour-combinations separate from the edition, and they’re now some of the most coveted works in his print market.

When the image is perfected, a proof is made and signed B.A.T. (an abbreviation of the French bon à tirer, or ‘ready to print’). The rest of the edition is matched to this image, which is unique and traditionally kept by the printer.

Christie’s defines an ‘original print’ as a limited-edition print by an artist that conforms to other prints in their catalogue raisonné, or matches other confirmed examples of the print by the artist. Our catalogue entries will always explain how we have reached the conclusion that a print is an authentic original. We give the artist’s name, the title of the work, what type of print it is (e.g. a lithograph, etching or screenprint), and the year it was made. Finally, we indicate how the work is numbered, and whether it is from the standard edition or a proof. We also list where applicable in the literature field the appropriate catalogue raisonné numbers for the piece. 

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  • How important are the different types of paper used in prints?

A sign of a true print specialist is not only their interest in technique but also their obsession with paper. Our cataloguing information will describe what type of paper a print is on, and will describe a watermark if it’s present.

The choice of paper is an important part of the printmaking process because it can directly influence the nature of what the printed image looks like. Jasper Johns is famous for having pushed for higher quality, heavier paper for his prints, while Andy Warhol loved cheaper, thinner paper for his Soup Can prints from the 1960s to emphasise that they were meant to be enjoyed by the masses.

Our condition report also notes whether an item is the full sheet or with full margins, which means that the paper has not been trimmed in some fashion, itself an issue that affects the value. 

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  • Do different printmaking studios make a difference in terms of price and quality?

Christie’s cataloguing also indicates where a work was published — namely the studio where a print was made. These workshops can be huge production studios with large-scale equipment or small-scale operations with only a few employees. Some really famous names to pay attention to for Post-War and Contemporary prints are ULAE in West Islip, Long Island Tyler Graphics in Mount Kisco, Gemini G.E.L. in L.A., and Paragon Press in London. That's just a small selection, however, and we are always finding out about new studios. 

There are studios that have been historically important both for the technical development of printmaking and for the work that was produced there — Tyler Graphics is a famous example. As a result, many collectors follow a particular studio and collect many of the publications that have been produced there. Museums also frequently organise shows devoted to particular print publishers, such as the recent shows devoted to Crown Point Press and Gemini G.E.L. at the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.

Some printers and publishers use a blindstamp which is an embossed, inked or stamped mark in the paper to mark that an edition was printed at their studio. 

Wayne Thiebaud (b. 1920), Eight Lipsticks, 1988. Drypoint in colours, hand-worked by the artist, on wove paper, 1988, signed and dated in pencil, inscribed TP (a trial proof, aside from the edition of 60), published by Crown Point Press, San Francisco. Image 7 x 6 in (177 x 152 mm). Sheet 15¼ x 12 in (387 x 305 mm). Sold for $87,500 on 29 September 2016 at Christie’s in New York

Wayne Thiebaud (b. 1920), Eight Lipsticks, 1988. Drypoint in colours, hand-worked by the artist, on wove paper, 1988, signed and dated in pencil, inscribed 'T/P' (a trial proof, aside from the edition of 60), published by Crown Point Press, San Francisco. Image: 7 x 6 in (177 x 152 mm). Sheet: 15¼ x 12 in (387 x 305 mm). Sold for $87,500 on 29 September 2016 at Christie’s in New York © Wayne Thiebaud/ DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2017

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  • Are all prints signed? What does it mean if I find a print without an artist’s signature?

The majority of the prints sold at Christie’s are signed — though not all prints are issued with a signature. Andy Warhol and Pablo Picasso both stamp-signed some of their prints, and some larger portfolio editions were only signed on the title page. Don’t be alarmed if a print is only initialled. It doesn’t mean that it is worth less — indeed, some artists only initial their prints, such as Richard Diebenkorn and Lucian Freud.

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  • Which artists should I be following at auction?

A history of the greatest printmakers in art history would include some of the most significant artists of the past 500 years — from Albrecht Dürer to Rembrandt, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Warhol and Johns. These artists were not only interested in using printmaking to create iconic images, but advanced the medium through innovation. Picasso invented totally new ways of printing, Warhol pushed the printers he worked with throughout his career, and Jasper Johns continues to create new and exciting prints in his 80s.  

As a result, the history of printmaking is also a timeline of technological change and reinvention — from the emergence of basic engraving techniques in the 15th century to digital printing in the 21st.

Jasper Johns (b.  1930), Flags I, 1973. Screenprint in colours, on J. B. Green paper, signed, titled and dated in pencil, numbered 5965 (there were also 7 artists proofs), co-published by the artist and Simca Print Artists, Inc., New York, with their blindstamp, the full sheet, in very good condition, framed.  Sheet 27⅜ x 35¼ in (695 x 895 mm). Sold for $1,685,000 on 27 April 2016, at

Jasper Johns (b. 1930), Flags I, 1973. Screenprint in colours, on J. B. Green paper, signed, titled and dated in pencil, numbered 59/65 (there were also 7 artist's proofs), co-published by the artist and Simca Print Artists, Inc., New York, with their blindstamp, the full sheet, in very good condition, framed. Sheet: 27⅜ x 35¼ in (695 x 895 mm). Sold for $1,685,000 on 27 April 2016, at Christie’s in New York © Jasper Johns / VAGA, New York / DACS, London 2017

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  • How do prints sit within a broader collection?

The role of prints in a collection can be as multifaceted as prints themselves. They can be a way of building a more comprehensive collection that tells a more complete story about an artist’s practice — often featuring themes and compositions found in paintings or sculptures. For example, prints by Picasso and Johns 
show an evolution of different subjects, but also reveal the growth of their skill as printmakers over the course of their careers.

Prints can also present the opportunity to own an authentic and iconic subject without a seven-figure price tag attached to it — a Warhol Liz, a Thiebaud still life, or a depiction of the female form by Picasso. Prints can also be a great way to get started — a way to acquaint yourself with styles and artists in the same mode as other mediums but at a different price point.  

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  • How should I care for my print?

How you frame your print is the most important long-term decision you make when it comes to caring for and keeping the piece. Make sure you go to a reputable framer: it’s worth paying for a print to be properly mounted using the right materials, and many are not as expensive as you might think.

Three key tips: if a print has bright colours, don’t hang it in direct sunlight; ensure a print is kept away from any source of moisture; don’t trim the sheet to try to fit it in a smaller frame. Framing is something our team is happy to discuss with you — we’re very used to being asked these questions. 

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  • What sort of advice can I expect from Christie’s specialists?

Editions are sold throughout the year at Christie’s. We hold sales in New York in March, July, and September alongside sales in Post-War and Contemporary Art that focused on lower-priced prints by the greats of post-war and contemporary art. Our dedicated prints sales in April and October in New York and March and September in London are an opportunity to view the broadest range of works in our market, by artists ranging from Pablo Picasso to Roy Lichtenstein. We also hold a number of online sales each year with all sorts of subjects, ranging from sales by artist or portfolio to thematic sales devoted to particular time periods or compositions.

In last April’s sale in New York we offered a Jasper Johns Flags I that sold for $1,685,000. We also hold a number of online sales each year with all sorts of subjects, ranging from sales by artist or portfolio to thematic sales devoted to particular time periods or compositions. 

The specialists who work in Christie’s Prints & Multiples department are always happy to explain more about the medium. Our public views in the Christie’s galleries offer a great opportunity to get to know us — plus, they also give you the chance to see the huge range of works we offer in person. Unlike a museum, we’re always happy to take a work out of its frame to enable you to take a closer look at it. A print specialist can discuss condition in front of the object itself, and elaborate on the nature of that particular edition. We love sharing our passion with others.